CBD Glossary


Common Terms for the Cannabis Connoisseur

Common cannabis terms

We created this glossary to help enhance the cannabis shopping experience by demystifying some of the terms that you may run into on your cannabis journey.


Cannabis is a genus of plant that contains three species: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. Cannabidiol (CBD) comes from chemovars (strains) of Cannabis sativa that are specifically bred to contain low levels of THC.


Any strain of Cannabis sativa that contains less than 0.3% of THC is classified by the federal government as hemp. All of our products are derived from hemp plants that we cultivate using regenerative organi practies on our farm in Western Maryland.


Indica, or Cannabis indica refers to a type of cannabis plant or strains (chemovar) typically associated with producing full body effects such as increasing relaxation and calm.


Sativa, or Cannabis sativa, refers to a type of cannabis plant or strains (chemovar) that is known for its more invigorating or energizing effects, and are associated with increased focus and creativity.


A hybrid refers to a strain (chemovar) that is a blend of both Indica and Sativa genetics. These strains can be an equally balanced blend or be more Indica or Sativa dominant.

Hemp Seed Oil

Hemp seed oil comes from the seeds of the Cannabis sativa plant. The seeds do not contain cannabidiol (CBD), but do contain an abundance of fatty acids and nutrients that can have health benefits.

CBD Oil/ Hemp Oil

Hemp oil and CBD oil are the same thing. Both terms refer to oil that is extracted from the flower, leaves, and stalks of the hemp plant. These products contain a significant level of cannabidiol or CBD. Many people mistakenly conflate hemp seed oil with hemp oil, but it is important to note the distinction between the two as hemp seed oil does not contain CBD.

Cannabis Oil

Cannabis oil is oil that is extracted from the cannabis plant. It is a term that can be used to describe oils extracted from hemp plants as well as oils that are extracted from cannabis plants with a high THC content.


Bioavailability refers to the body’s ability to absorb a certain chemical or compound. CBD bioavailability refers to the amount of cannabidiol that is circulating in the bloodstream and available for interaction with your endocannabinoid system. The main factors that affect the bioavailability of CBD are 1) the formulation of the product and 2) whether you’ve consumed a fatty meal. Our tinctures are most bioavailable when the drops are taken orally, and held under the tongue or in the cheek. Giving them 60-90 seconds to absorb through the mucous membranes allows the active ingredients to bypass the liver, with faster absorption and with more of the cannabinoids available to systemic circulation. We always stay apprised of the latest medical research and this research demonstrates that long chain fatty acids make fat-loving cannabinoids more available for absorption into our bodies. Safflower oil is an oil with long chain fatty acids making it more bioavailable than MCT oil (the more common carrier oil) so your body is able to absorb more of the good stuff from our products.

Endocannabinoids and the Endocannabinoid System

The Endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a whole-body system (much like our respiratory system or digestive system) that helps regulate a variety of functions involved in physiological and cognitive processes and contributes to the homeostasis of the body’s internal environment. The ECS is linked to immunity, sleep, mood, learning and memory, appetite and digestion, metabolism, bone and muscle formation, skin and nerve function and motor control. Endocannabinoids or endogenous cannabinoids are a type of lipid based compound produced by our bodies to interact with receptors that live in our brains, heart, gut, and nerves. Both endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids (the cannabinoids that come from cannabis plants) can activate the endocannabinoid system by binding to cannabinoid receptors on the surface of cells (CB1 and CB2 receptors) to help stimulate and modulate various biological processes.

CB1 & CB2 Receptors

These are the two primary cannabinoid receptors that are found in the body. CB1 receptors are primarily found in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) while CB2 receptors are mainly found in the peripheral nervous system and immune cells. Endocannabinoids can bind to either type of receptor to produce different effects.

Entourage Effect Theory

The entourage effect theory postulates that cannabinoids work most effectively when taken with the whole spectrum of the cannabis plant. I.e the interaction between all of the compounds found in a cannabis plant, like cannabinoids and terpenes, come together to enhance their effects. This is why we produce full spectrum products. Humans have been consuming cannabis for tens of thousands of years. It stands to reason that we’ve coevolved as organisms and our bodies may respond to more than one of the over four hundred chemical compounds in cannabis.


Homeostasis refers to the body’s overarching goal to remain a stable and balanced environment. One of the ways our bodies maintain homeostasis is through the endocannabinoid system. CBD and other cannabinoids can help supplement our body’s naturally produced cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) to assist with activating this system and keeping our bodies healthy over the long term.

Carrier Oil

A carrier oil is the substance that “carries” the hemp oil in the tincture. Many companies use coconut oil (MCT oil) as their carrier oil, but we have opted to use Safflower oil. This is because we always stay apprised of the latest medical research which demonstrates that long chain fatty acids make fat-loving cannabinoids more available for absorption into our bodies. Safflower oil is an oil with long chain fatty acids making it more bioavailable than MCT oil (the more common carrier oil) so your body is able to absorb more of the good stuff from our products. We also grow safflowers on our farm!

Minor cannabinoids

Minor cannabinoids can have a big impact on your experience by providing additional benefits. We’ve listed a few that you’ll find in our strains.


Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main cannabinoid found in hemp plants. CBD is not psychoactive, and has been linked to a diverse host of health benefits including: anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, anti-seizure, etc. Interestingly, CBD may even be involved in ridding the body of cancer-causing free radicals.


Cannabigerol (CBG) is another cannabinoid that is found in hemp and cannabis plants, but in much smaller quantities than CBD. It has a non-intoxicating effect, and has been used to combat pain and inflammation.


Cannabinol (CBN) is another cannabinoid that is found in small amounts in cannabis and hemp. It has non-intoxicating effects and been shown to have sedating properties, and also decrease pain in people with muscle and joint conditions.


Cannabichromene (CBC) is one of the major cannabinoids found in hemp and cannabis plants. It has non-intoxicating effects and has shown strong potential for providing therapeutic benefits for inflammation, cell function and mood.


Cannabidivarin (CBDv) is one of the newly discovered cannabinoids in hemp and cannabis. It is non-intoxicating, and research has shown that it may be helpful in treating migraines and neuropathic pain.


Along with minor cannabinoids, terpenes play a role in the entourage effect, enhancing the benefits and experience of CBD. We’ve included some of the naturally occurring terpenes you’ll find in our strains.


Terpenes are natural compounds that are present in most of the essential oils produced by plants, and even a few animals. There are approximately 120 different terpenes in cannabis, many of which are unique to the plant, and they are found in the flower or bud. Terpenes are what give different strains of cannabis their unique flavors and aromas as well as enhance the effect of cannabis by changing the way we process cannabinoids. Terpenes also assist with the absorption of cannabinoids and have a variety of different health benefits.


A terpene that creates the piney aroma present in many strains (chemovars) and acts as an anti-inflammatory.


A terpene that is known for being a mood booster and for decreasing stress without acting as a sedative.


A terpene that may be useful in reducing inflammation and chronic pain and is found in many indica dominant strains suggesting that it works as a sleep aid.


Is the only terpene that binds to CB2 receptors making it a great anti-inflammatory agent.


Is a terpene that can exhibit a sedative effect making it an effective treatment for anxiety, insomnia, and panic attacks.


Humulene is a terpene currently under active research. Studies demonstrate that is can be an effective anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and appetite suppressant.

Extraction methods

The method of extraction can have a big impact on the final product, these terms provide insight as to what happens during the extraction process.

Closed-loop Extraction

Closed-loop extraction is a type of hydrocarbon extraction where the extraction process occurs entirely within a closed system. This keeps the solvent from making any contact with the outside atmosphere. Closed-loop systems offers benefits that other extraction methods are unable to provide, such as safety and efficiency. In a closed-loop extraction systems use solvents to extract cannabinoids, terpenes, and other materials from the hemp plant. The solvent moves from a containment tank into an area where it can wash over the plant material. The system recycles the solvent, so it washes over the cannabis many times repeatedly. The concentrate is then refined, purged of the solvent, and collected. We test all of our concentrates prior to formulating our oils to make sure that none of the solvent used during extraction remain in our concentrated oil.


Decarboxylation, which occurs through heating, is the process by which CBDA is converted into CBD. This happens because when the CBDA is heated it undergoes a chemical change which results in the loss of a carboxyl group. This is why the process is called decarboxylation. This is the same process that converts THCa to THC. In order to preserve terpenes and cannabinoids, this process must happen slowly and at a low temperature.

Testing & trancparency

We are intentional about providing up-to-date information about our testing & transparency, we also want to make sure you’re educated about what is in your products. the following terms are to help you understand where to find information and what to look for in our CBD and others.

Certificate of Analysis (COA)

A certificate of analysis is a report, produced by an accredited laboratory, that details the chemical analysis of a product or in this case, our full spectrum tinctures. We produce a COA for each lot of tincture that we formulate, and they can be found here on our COA page. To find the COA that corresponds to your bottle of tincture, you first need to locate the lot number printed on your bottle. We print each lot number along the edge of our bottle labels next to the expiration date. We organize our COA page by strain and lot number. Find your strain, and then scroll down and locate the COA that corresponds to the lot number printed on your bottle.

COA or Cannabinoid Profile

A cannabinoid profile identifies the cannabinoids and their quantities present in a specific product or formulation.

Cannabinoids/ Phytocannabinoids

Cannabinoids are a group of biologically available chemical compounds that are found in both cannabis and naturally occurring in our body. The term phytocannabinoids refers to the cannabinoids that are produced by plants. There are more than 100 different cannabinoids in the cannabis plant including CBD and THC. Cannabinoids exert their effects by interacting with specific cannabinoid receptors present in the body. These receptors are part of the body’s central regulatory system known as the endocannabinoid system. Different cannabinoids interact with your body to produce different reactions and effects.

Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol

Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive cannabinoid. It is the most abundant cannabinoid in marijuana plants. It binds with receptors in the body (mainly in the brain and central nervous system) that affect pain and can produce the euphoric effect that people associate with getting “high.” All of our products contain less than 0.3% delta-9 THC and so they won’t have psychoactive effects.


Acknowledge tinctures do not contain any additives. This means that our product is made using extract from our organically grown hemp and the safflower oil that we use as a carrier! Other companies, however, will put all sorts of other things into their products, like flavorings or outside terpenes, and all of those additional chemicals are referred to as additives.


This stands for “less than the limit of quantification”. When a compound on a COA is reported as <LDQ it means that the lab has detected the compound, but there are not high enough levels to provide an exact measurement. Terpenes frequently come back as <LDQ, but they are very potent, so even small amounts can have an effect. Check out how many different terpenes are in our bottles!

Third Party Lab Test

Third-party testing is when a company sends its product to an outside, unbiased lab for testing to see if it meets the standards of the company, and to ensure that what is on the label is actually inside the product. All of our products are tested by a third-party lab, Pinnacle CT Labs. We have chosen to use Pinnacle CT as they are ISO accredited, and they employ the most sensitive and high-tech methods of testing to ensure a level of accuracy and specificity that is unsurpassed in the industry. Additionally, they are one of only three labs in the state of Maryland that have been approved to test medical cannabis by the Maryland Medical Cannabis Commission. While our products are not intended for medical use, we gain confidence in knowing our lab is one of just a few that are trusted by the medical industry.

Triple Lab Tested

We test our hemp three times during our manufacturing process. Our hemp is harvested from the field and immediately sent to the lab. Next, we extract our hemp to create the crude oil we use for formulation and ensure it is free of heavy metals, residual solvents, mycotoxins, foreign material, and microbiological contamination. Finally, we send each lot of our formulated product to our third-party lab to ensure the purity and quality of every bottle of tincture.

Solvents/ Residual Solvents

Many extractions methods rely on some sort of solvent to produce a product. Residual solvent testing ensures that none of these chemicals, also known as a volatile organic compounds, are detected in the product that remains.


A potency test indicates the amount of cannabinoids present in a sample. For example, when you take a look at this Forbidden V COA, you can see that each mL of our 1500mg Forbidden OR tincture contains…. UPDATE WHEN COA IN

Microbiological Contamination

This refers to the accidental introduction of infectious organisms, like bacteria or yeast, into a product or substance. We test for this type of contamination to ensure our products are clean and safe for human consumption.


A mycotoxin is a toxic byproduct of fungus that can cause sickness and even death. All of our products are tested to ensure they are mycotoxin free.

Quality Control

A quality control represents a system of maintaining accuracy and high standards in manufactures products, like our full spectrum tinctures, by testing a sample against an established measurement or specification. Our third-party lab have a wide variety of different quality control measures and systems put into place to ensure that all of the tests they run and results they report are reliable and accurate.

farming practices

These terms shed some light about the practices that are used on our farm to produce our high-quality hemp.

Regenerative Agriculture

Regenerative agriculture is characterized by farming practices that work to counter the effects of climate change by building up organic matter in the soil and adding biodiversity while reducing ones carbon footprint and improving water quality and the overall health of the land.

Cover Crop

Cover cropping is an example of just one of the regenerative farming practices we use on site at Acknowledge Farms. A cover crop is a type of crop that is grown specifically to enrich the soil of a specific plot or piece of land rather than for the purpose of being harvested. They help manage soil fertility, quality, and erosion, as well as increasing water retention, biodiversity, and wildlife. At Acknowledge Farms we maintain covercrops in all of our fields, including types of clover, grasses, and legumes, to keep our land healthy and balenced. When it is time to plant our hemp, we till the cover crops into the soil which allows that organic material to decompose and improve soil quality.

Companion Planting

Interspersed between our hemp are different flowers, herbs, and other beneficial plants that enhance the growth of our hemp and protect it from pests. These plants are known as companion plants. Plants like marigolds act as natural pest repellents. Other plants, like borage and basil, are called catch crops. These plants act as tasty meals for our native wildlife ensuring that they leave our hemp alone.

Rotational Grazing

Rotational grazing, as opposed to continuous grazing, describes a system of livestock pasturing where animals are moved at regular intervals between different fields leaving those not in use to rest. This ensures that no area is “over grazed” and left severely depleted. At Acknowledge, we partner with our neighboring dairy farmer to bring his cows onto our fields. They get a great source of nutrition, and we get the benefits of the nutrients they leave behind.

Low-Till Farming

Low-Till Farming practices minimize soil disturbance by only turning over the soil in the small area you intend to use for planting. This allows the majority of the soil structure in our fields to stay intact, leading to better absorption of matter, increased microorganisms, and more nutrients for our hemp to absorb.